In general, the answer is no, but there are exceptions.
Once a judgment is final, a court may reopen it only when specifically authorized by statute or court rule. In re Shoemaker, 128 Wn. 2d 116, 120, 904 P.2d 1150 (1995). RCW 26.09.170(1) provides in pertinent part that “[t]he provisions as to property disposition may not be revoked or modified, unless the court finds the existence of conditions that justify the reopening of a judgment under the laws of this state.”
Exception: The most common way to vacate a final judgment is to use Civil Rule 60 (CR 60) as a basis to vacate a Decree of dissolution.
First, it must be in a reasonable time (usually less than a year since the date of Decree).
Second, CR 60(b) list eleven reasons allowing relief.
The first three reasons of CR 60 are clerical mistake, inadvertence, surprise; erroneous proceedings against a minor or unsound mind; and newly discovered evidence are waived if not made within one year.
Fraud is another reason to vacate. But this requires very specific evidence. Nondisclosure of the true value of an asset disposed of in a dissolution does not constitute the fraud necessary to vacate a decree under CR 60 if the complaining party had sufficient notice to give rise to duty of further inquiry. In re Marriage of Maddix, 41 Wn. App. 248, 253, 703 P.2d 1062 (1985), 253, 703 P.2d 1062 (1985) and cited in Washington Family Law Deskbook, Second Edition sec. 64.3(5).
Other reasons include: The judgment is void, the judgment has been satisfied, released, or discharged, if you were served by publication, death, unavoidable misfortune, error by a minor. Each one of these factors should be investigated thoroughly.
A catchall provision, CR 60(b)(11) states “Any other reason justifying relief from the operation of the judgment. Most of the time, however, this rule is saved for extraordinary circumstances.
Be clear that a court will not set aside a property settlement contract absent fraud, overreaching, or collusion. A simple showing of disparity in the division of property is not enough. In re Marriage of Curtis, 106 Wn. App. 191, 3 P.3d 13 (2001).
Remember, it is possible to overturn a Decree, but it is difficult. You must meet at least one reasons of civil rule 60.